Biological Manifestations of Social Maladies: Lupus in the United States

What determines health and causes disease? From ancient times to the 21st century, the determinants of health have morphed and shifted along with our understanding of disease etiology – from Hippocratic principles and miasmatic forces, to germ theory and hereditary factors such as genetics and epigenetics. However, in modern medicine and public health, we have come full circle to incorporate ancient and modern paradigms.